4. Prevention of Penile Cancer
Circumcision seems to be a strong factor in the prevention of penile cancer. However, uncircumcised men can decrease their likelihood of developing cancer of the penis by using good hygiene. It is recommended that uncircumcised men pull back the foreskin to clean the entire penis. This prevents the development of painful smegma, the irritating secretions that can be trapped under the foreskin. Since human papillomavirus is linked to the development of penile cancer, taking precautions against HPV will also be protective against cancer. Use of condoms during sexual activity and vaccination against HPV can help prevent cancer.
3. Diagnosis of Penile Cancer
If you detect warning signs of penile cancer, your doctor will conduct an exam and take a thorough medical history. Biopsies may be taken of the nodules or bumps, and biopsies of your lymph nodes may be taken as well. Your physician may order a computed tomography (CT) scan to see if the cancer has spread to other areas of your body. A CT-guided needle biopsy may be employed to remove a sample of enlarged lymph nodes. MRI, ultrasound, and chest x-rays are other diagnostic tools that may be used to determine the extent of cancer in your body.
2. Treatment of Penile Cancer
Surgery is the most common treatment for penile cancer. If the cancer is limited to the foreskin, circumcision may be all that is required to remove the cancer. In other cases, more of the tissue of the penis may need to be removed. If the cancer is caught early enough, some of the penis may be spared, called a partial penectomy. If the cancer has advanced to later stages, the entire penis may be removed in a penectomy. If the cancer has spread to lymph nodes, they may need to be surgically removed as well. Radiation may be used to treat penile cancer if the lesions are very small or if surgery is not an option. If caught very early, some low-grade penile cancers may respond to laser treatment or cryotherapy.
1. Prognosis of Penile CancerRelated: Types of Skin Cancer You Should Know
When caught early, the prognosis for penile cancer is optimistic. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for cancers that were confined to the penis is around 85%. If cancers have spread to nearby tissues or nodes, the 5-year survival rate is around 59%. Good genital hygiene, understanding of risk factors, and safe sexual practices all aid in prevention, early detection, and intervention of penile cancer.