German measles, or rubella, is a viral infection that is relatively rare in the U.S. due to vaccination. Symptoms of this infection typically appear as fever, sore throat, and a rash that spreads from the face to other parts of the body. This infection is particularly dangerous for unborn babies. Certain countries in Africa, the Middle East, and southern and southeast Asia continue to see diagnoses of rubella. In the United States, the rubella vaccine is given in combination with the vaccines for measles and mumps.
The term “plague” may call to mind pictures of filthy medieval towns or overcrowded tenements. However, the plague still exists today. According to the CDC, the plague is usually transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected rodent flea or contact with infected body fluids or tissues. The plague can show up in three different forms. Bubonic plague occurs when fever and chills accompany inflamed lumps on the body. Septicemic plague describes a plague infection of the blood. Pneumonic plague occurs when the bacteria infect the lungs.
Poliomyelitis, or polio, is a viral infection that can be transmitted from one person to another. This disease enters through the respiratory tract and can travel through the bloodstream to infect the brain and spinal cord. When the brain and spinal cord become involved, there is a risk of paralysis and even death. While the World Health Organization states that the number of cases of polio has decreased by more than 99% since 1988, this disease has not been wiped out in Nigeria, Afghanistan, or Pakistan.