The most recent news on COVID vaccines says it could take up to 2024 to give everyone the two doses needed to prevent viral infections of COVID-19.
Dr. Jorge Rodriguez says there may not be enough vaccines available right away to give everyone the two doses they believe is necessary. Especially since these doses need to be spaced one month apart, so it could be later than 2021 before it is available to all.
There are four main companies that are in Phase III of vaccine research, the last phase before it can be manufactured and released to the public: Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Moderna, and Serum Institute of India. Actually, there are at least 200 research studies worldwide working on COVID vaccines. Normally vaccines take two to five years before they are ready to release for public use.
4. Phases of Vaccine Study
Research for a vaccine for this virus has been started at the US under Operation Warp Speed to find a vaccine quickly. At the same time, caution is needed, because by going too fast researchers may miss or ignore some signs that should have been studied further.
Before any vaccine can be released, researchers have usually taken one to three years to research, explore, and study specific characteristics of the microorganism and how it works. Then they complete pre-clinical testing on animals to find out how it best functions in a living body.
3. Phase I
Phase I begins the human clinical studies with a small group of participants who get the first shots of the new vaccine. They are monitored closely to see if they have any adverse reactions.
2. Phase II
In Phase II, the researchers can expand the number of human participants, adding people who have a certain criterion for which this particular vaccine is intended. This phase looks for signs that the vaccine is activating the immune response. Phase II also gathers information about possible side effects.
1. Phase III
In the last phase, Phase III, the trial expands to thousands of participants to test the vaccine. They find out if the vaccine protects like it was meant to, testing for safety and efficacy. Vaccines are not simple or cheap to invent, and they can have high failure rates, close to 93% if they do not have the correct dose. This is why so many people are needed for Phase III, so that the effectiveness can be studied across a wide range of people.
After the completion of the three phases, a determination is made about whether the vaccine is effective enough to release to the general population. This is normally about 50% effective for most vaccines, the threshold at which it is considered a successful vaccine.